Jan. 14, 2014 Many woodland plants rely on ants to disperse their seeds; such seed dispersal increases the plant population's chance of survival. Robert Warren, assistant professor of biology at SUNY Buffalo State, has recently demonstrated that ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores) compete for ant dispersers by staggering seed release.
"Competition as a mechanism structuring mutualisms" by Warren and coauthors Itamar Giladi and Mark A. Bradford was published online on January 13 in the Journal of Ecology. The researchers hypothesized that the staggered timing of seed release by ant-dependent plants has been shaped by competition, through which plants with less desirable (smaller) seeds avoid competing with plants with more desirable (larger) seeds. Warren showed that ants will ignore small seeds altogether if they are placed close to large seeds.
"It is well known that plants compete for the light, water, and nutrients they need to thrive, " said Warren. "However, we show that plants also compete for living resources such as ants to disperse seeds." In other words, mutualist partners -- members of different species whose mutual dependence benefits members of each species -- are as fundamental a resource as sun and moisture.
Warren et al observed ants at four seed-bait stations by reviewing 96 hours of video footage, and scored 210 ant visits for ant behavior and species identity. "Our results show that ants clearly prefer larger seeds to smaller seeds," said Warren. "A comprehensive analysis of ant- and non-ant dispersed plants suggests that small-seeded plants must then release their seeds very early in spring when ant foraging is unreliable to avoid competing with the larger seeds, which are released later in spring, for ant attention." Plants that are not ant-dispersed show no restraints on when they can release small seeds.
These results suggest that mutualistic partners are as essential a resource as nonliving resources. "Ecological interactions are defined by more than either competition or mutualism," said Warren. "It's likely that both are involved."
Welcome to SUV System Ltd!
SUV System Ltd is ISO 90012008 Certified electronics distributor with 10 years of experiences.
We have built up long term business relationship with about many companies which are stockers and authorized agents. we have a steady and reliable supply to meet customer's demands to the greatest extent .Confidently, we are able to lower your cost and support your business with our years of professional service.
SUV System Ltd is Electronic Components Distributor Supplies,Find Quality Electronic Components Supplies Products IC(Integrated Circuits),Connectors,Capacitor,Resistors,Diodes,Transistors,LED at Suvsystem.com. Sourcing Other Energy, Environment, Excess Inventory Products from Manufacturers and Suppliers at Suvsystem.com
SUV System Ltd insists on the managing faith ofsincereness,speciality,foresight, win-win,so we build up stable-relationship customers located all over the world, including the States, Europe, Argentina, UAE, Malaysia, Australia,and India etc
we are focus on the following fields,and hope we can help you.
LED part Metal Can Packages Transistors Resistor Networks Multi-units Transistors NXP Diodes IR Diodes ON Diodes Bipolar Transistors MAXIM IC components YAGEO Resistors High Precision Resistors Transistors BB IC Switches Xilinx IC PANASONIC NEC Transistors ALTERA IC DIODES Transistors Transistors Freescale Ligitek LED NXP Transistors IC(Integrated Circuits) Zener Diodes Renesas parts IC Thick Film Resistors SANYO IC ROHM Resistors Civil IC Freescale Semiconductor Chip Inductors Digital Transistors Current Sensors Resistors Industrial IC INFLNEON Diodes IDT IC Chip Ferrite Beads TOSHIBA Transistors TI IC