"In the visual system, precise connections between your eyes and brain help you see specific things and make sure those images are clear and crisp," said senior author Andrew D. Huberman, PhD, assistant professor of neurosciences, neurobiology and ophthalmology. "Sensors in the eye also detect movement and connect to the brain in just the right way to tell your eyes to move in the right direction without blurring images, the way a camera does if you try to take a picture while moving. Until now, we didn't really understand how the eye and brain control that on a molecular level."
To determine exactly how your eyes and brain work together to keep things steady, Huberman, lead author Jessica Osterhout and team labeled specific sets of neurons in the brain that make specific connections -- a technique pioneered by Huberman's lab. This approach allows researchers to look at individual components of the visual network and eventually identify the exact genes those cells switch on during development, as they make the appropriate connections.
From this, the team found Contactin-4, an adhesion molecule. They determined that Conactin-4's expression is very specific to those cells in the eye involved in image stabilization. When the researchers mutated Contactin-4, the circuit didn't form properly and visual cells didn't talk to the brain correctly. On the other hand, when they added Contactin-4 to a cell that doesn't normally produce it, that one additional protein was all the cell needed make the circuits for a steady eye-brain connection.
Then the team went looking for proteins that bind Contactin-4. They uncovered amyloid precursor protein, which has been widely studied for its role in Alzheimer's disease, but is also known to be an important factor in normal brain development. If amyloid precursor protein isn't available, the researchers discovered, Contactin-4 can't control development of the visual circuitry.
Based upon these findings, Huberman and colleagues hypothesize that there are also very specific sets of genes that make sure the correct neurons make the correct connections in other aspects of neural circuitry, in addition to vision. And these genes are very likely important for accurate sensory perception and behavior.
Next, Huberman and his team plan to take a closer look at how these genes and precise neural connections go wrong in cognitive diseases. For example, since the Contactin-4 gene is located in a cluster of genes that have been implicated in some forms of autism, they want to know if aberrations in that particular gene might play a role in development of the disease.
"My lab is also interested in figuring out how to reconnect or regenerate circuits damaged by injury or disease," Huberman said.
Welcome to SUV System Ltd!
SUV System Ltd is ISO 90012008 Certified electronics distributor with 10 years of experiences.
We have built up long term business relationship with about many companies which are stockers and authorized agents. we have a steady and reliable supply to meet customer's demands to the greatest extent .Confidently, we are able to lower your cost and support your business with our years of professional service.
SUV System Ltd is Electronic Components Distributor Supplies,Find Quality Electronic Components Supplies Products IC(Integrated Circuits),Connectors,Capacitor,Resistors,Diodes,Transistors,LED at Suvsystem.com. Sourcing Other Energy, Environment, Excess Inventory Products from Manufacturers and Suppliers at Suvsystem.com
SUV System Ltd insists on the managing faith ofsincereness,speciality,foresight, win-win,so we build up stable-relationship customers located all over the world, including the States, Europe, Argentina, UAE, Malaysia, Australia,and India etc
we are focus on the following fields,and hope we can help you.
Transistors Freescale Fleld Effect Transistors HARRIS IC INTERSIL IC NXP Diodes components PANASONIC Resistors Civil IC Ligitek LED Switches INFLNEON Diodes Discrete Semiconductor Transistors Fairchild Semiconductor Transistors TOSHIBA Transistors ST Transistors LED part Infineon Technologies Transistors Resistor Arrays IR Diodes Military IC Resistors DIODES Transistors Transistors Kingbrigt LED Voltage Regulators Transistors Chip Fuses Diodes Low Ohmic Resistors ON Diodes Renesas parts IC Resistor Networks TI IC NEC Transistors IR transistor SANYO IC Chip Inductors VISHAY IC Connectors TDK IC ELPIDA IC